Serotonin's (Ssri) Role in Depression
Serotonin's (Ssri) Role in Depression
December 16 2022 TalktoAngel 0 comments 109 Views
What is Depression?
Depression ranges in severity from relatively moderate, transient episodes of low mood states to severe, lengthy symptoms that exert a significant influence on a person's quality of life. Depression is frequently classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Clinical depression occurs when a person's symptoms have progressed to the persistent end of the range and necessitate professional care.
Although depression can take various forms and be classified in a variety of ways, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) defines two core categories of clinical depression: Major depressive disorder (unipolar depression) and bipolar disorder's depressed phase.
How is Depression Caused?
Many factors can raise the likelihood of depression, including the following:
Abuse- Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse can increase your risk of depression later in life.
Age- People above the age of 65 are much more likely to be depressed. Other variables, like as living alone and an absence of social support, can exacerbate this.
Some medicines- Some prescriptions, such as isotretinoin (for acne), interferon-alpha (an antiviral therapy), and corticosteroids, can increase your risk of depression.
Conflict- Personal problems or confrontations with friends or family may result in depression in someone who is biologically vulnerable to it.
A loss or death- While normal, sadness or grief after the death or of a beloved one may raise the likelihood of depression.
Gender- Women are roughly two times more likely as males to get depression. Nobody knows why. The hormonal fluctuations that women go through at different periods in their lives may have an effect.
Genes- A genetic history of depression could raise the risk. Depression is regarded to be a complex trait, which means that there are likely many separate genes, each with a minor effect, instead of a single gene that adds to disease risk. Depression, like some other psychiatric disorders, has a more intricate genetic profile than exclusively hereditary diseases such as Huntington's chorea or cystic fibrosis.
Significant occurrences- Even positive events, such as beginning a new job, graduating, or marrying, can lead to depression. Shifting, losing employment or money, divorcing, or retiring all can have an effect. To learn more about depression issues, seek Online Counselling at TalktoAngel, Asia’s Best Online Depression Counselling Platform.
Other personal concerns- Social solitude resulting because of other mental illnesses, as well as exclusion from a social or familial group, can all enhance the likelihood of developing severe depression.
Chronic Illnesses- Depression might arise concurrently with or as a result of a serious disease.
Misuse of drugs- Nearly 30% of those who abuse substances also suffer from significant or clinical depression. Even if drugs or alcohol initially make you feel better, they will eventually make you feel worse.
Consulting online for depression with the “Best Clinical Psychologist near me” shall be of great help in the identification of reasons or triggers of depression, assessment, and depression therapy including the best online Cognitive Behaviour Therapy.
Does Serotonin play a role in Depression?
Serotonin has been the chemical transmitter that has gotten the most attention in depression research. The most definitive proof for abnormally reduced central serotonergic system function comes from research that uses tryptophan deprivation, which decreases central serotonin production. This decreases results in the development of depressive symptoms in subjects at high risk of depression (subjects with MDD in full remission, healthy subjects with a family history of depression), which may be mediated by increased brain metabolism in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and sub-cortical brain regions. Reduced central serotonin has been linked to mood-congruent memory bias, changed reward-related behaviors, and disturbance of inhibitory emotional processing, all of which contribute to the clinical plausibility of the serotonin deficiency theory. There is additional evidence of serotonin receptor anomalies in depression.
There is also evidence of serotonin receptor anomalies in depression, with the strongest evidence that points to the serotonin-1A receptor, which modulates serotonin activity. Reduced availability of this receptor has been found in multiple brain areas of MDD patients, though this abnormality is not highly specific for MDD and has also been found in patients with panic disorder and temporal lobe epilepsy, potentially contributing to the significant co-morbidity among these conditions. There is no explanation for the process of serotonin loss in depressed patients, and studies of serotonin metabolites in plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as post-mortem research on the serotonergic system in depression, have produced contradictory results.
Preliminary evidence suggests that greater availability of the brain monoamine oxidization, which metabolizes serotonin, may result in a serotonin deficit. Furthermore, mutations in the gene encoding the brain-specific enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-2 may explain the decrease of serotonin synthesis as an uncommon risk factor for depression.
There is no consistent evidence of a link between serotonin and depression in the primary areas of serotonin study, and no support for the concept that depression is caused by decreased serotonin activity or concentrations. Some research suggested that prolonged antidepressant use decreases serotonin concentrations.
Weak evidence from investigations of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors and SERT levels suggests a probable link between enhanced serotonin activity and depression. These findings, however, are most likely influenced by prior antidepressant usage and its impact on the serotonergic system. In some cross-over investigations involving persons with depression, the effects of tryptophan depletion can also be driven by antidepressants, albeit this has not been consistently demonstrated.
Professionals continue to advocate the serotonin imbalance theory of depression, and the serotonin theory, in specifically, has been the focus of extensive research over the last few decades. The general public largely believes that depression is caused by serotonin or other chemical imbalances, and this idea impacts how individuals understand their emotions, leading to a bleak view on the prognosis of depression and unfavorable expectations about the feasibility of mood self-regulation. The notion that depression is caused by a chemical imbalance influences judgments about whether or not to take or maintain antidepressant medication, and it may dissuade patients from terminating therapy, potentially leading to lifetime dependence on these drugs. For better management of medication seek Online Consultation with the “Best Psychiatrist near me”.
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"It is okay to have depression, it is okay to have anxiety and it is okay to have an adjustment disorder. We need to improve the conversation. We all have mental health in the same way we all have physical health." - Prince Harry
“You say you’re ‘depressed’ – all I see is resilience. You are allowed to feel messed up and inside out. It doesn’t mean you’re defective – it just means you’re human.” - David Mitchell, Cloud Atlas
“What mental health needs is more sunlight, more candor, and more unashamed conversation.” - Glenn Close